The Latin synecdŏche, which comes from a Greek word, came to our language as synecdoche . It's about a trope that expands, limits or modifies the meaning of a term, naming a part of something as if it were a whole or mentioning the whole with the denomination of one of the parts.
It should be remembered that tropes consist of replacing one word with another that acquires a figurative sense . Troops, in this way, constitute a tool of rhetoric which allows a term to acquire content that is not its own.
Picking up the idea synecdoche, this trope appeals to different mechanisms to confer meaning to expressions. One of the most usual methods consists of name a fragment or a sector of something for the representation of the whole . For example: “If we want to buy two pizzas, we will have to contribute twenty pesos per head”. As you can see, the synecdoque in this case consists in naming a part (the "head") to refer to the whole (the person).
The synecdoque also appears in the following expression : "Lucila turned twelve springs". In this case, the notion of "spring" to mean the years: the girl in question turned twelve years old, including springs, summers, autumns and winters.
In the media Synecdocs are also frequently used. If a sports commentator points out that “Spain beat Croatia 3 to 1”, will be mentioning teams (the part) that represent countries (everything). Something similar happens with the journalist who says “The White House is worried about the advance of terrorism”, naming the US government through the expression "White House".
Although the synecdoche is a figure rhetoric widely used in literary texts, it also has its place in visual media, in the same way that metonymy, metaphor or simile appear. These are visual resources that designers routinely use in advertising images, in the world of comics, in the pictures and in the composition of websites or magazine covers , among many other cases, with the aim of providing the figures with a meaning that transcends the literal.
In the specific case of the synecdoche visual , designers substitute or represent the concept they wish to evoke with an image that is inherently connected or intrinsically linked to it. For example, it is very common to see an image of the Eiffel Tower as a symbol of Paris or, depending on the context of France itself; Similarly, the Tower of Pisa can represent Italy and the Statue of Liberty, the United States.
The synecdoque is practically a necessity in the field of visual art, since it would be very aesthetic and functional to show satellite photography of an entire country to refer to it, just as it would be uncreative to only use this image each time. This last point, the creativity , is necessary for the development of a shocking synecdoque, but also feeds on the process.
Like any language resource, its use is not mandatory, but mastering it can open the doors to a very complex and rich communication, which constantly renews the experience of its participants. Taking the example of the Eiffel Tower, it is not always possible to use it as a symbol of Paris or France; for example, if the theme On one cover is regional food, this structure will have little to do with paellas and sushi.
While the use of rhetorical figures may be less necessary in speech, there is room for them in both informal and more formal relationships. Also, if we only used literal images, we would probably lack individuality, since it is through resources as the synecdoque we can distinguish ourselves by expressing ourselves.