Sign , with etymological origin in the word signum, is that which, whether by a convention or by nature, manages to replace another object or represent it. Signs are also signs or indications of something. Vital , meanwhile, is an adjective that comes from vitālis and that refers to what is linked to life, to the transcendent or to what has a lot of energy.
It is known as Vital signs to the set of physiological variables that doctors analyze for the assessment of the elementary organic functions . A person that lacks vital signs, therefore, it is dead : In other words, the absence of vital signs allows a medical professional to confirm the death of an individual.
The vital signs that are usually considered are the heart rate , the Breathing frequency , the blood pressure and the temperature of the body . To study these signs, the rhythm of the inhalation and exhalation in the breath is analyzed, the pulse is taken (considered from the swelling of the arteries when the blood passes) and thermometers and tensiometers are used to have information on the temperature and the tension.
Normal values of vital signs depend on various issues, such as age of the patient. The heart rate of a child of 10 years is not equal to the frequency of a man from 50 years, for example.
Body temperature, on the other hand, is considered normal for an adult to be between 36.5º and 37.2º. To be able to measure it, the use of the thermometer that can be placed in several parts of the body will be used: in the rectum, in the mouth, in the ear or in the armpit.
With regard to the pulse it can be said that this in an adult individual will be between 60 to 100 beats per minute. However, that can vary depending on whether he is exercising or not, if he is excited, if he is nervous ... Thus, for example, it is established that those who practice sports on a regular basis can have about 40 more beats per minute.
To be able to take someone's pulse, what can be done by pressing certain arteries with your fingers, you will choose to do it in certain areas of the body where you can perceive that more clearly. We are referring to the wrist, the lateral neck area or what is the inside of the elbow.
With regard to respiratory rate, when you want to take the vital signs of a person it is necessary to take into account that the normal of an adult will be between 12 to 16 breaths per minute. On the other hand, in the matter of blood pressure it is necessary to know that this will be taken using a tensiometer that can determine if it is in the normal parameters or if, on the contrary, it presents hypertension, for example.
If a doctor encounters an individual whose pulse is not detected, his heart does not pump blood and does not breathe, it may indicate that the subject does not show vital signs.