Measles , a notion that has its etymological origin in the Latin word syrup, is a disease which is characterized by the appearance of spots on the skin . Contagious, this condition causes cough , sneeze , fever and redness in the eyes .
Measles generates the development of exanthema (a rash that arises suddenly). That is why this disease shares certain characteristics with the chickenpox and the rubella , for example.
The cause of measles is a virus , which usually enters the body through the respiratory tract. The person incubates the disease without symptoms for a period that can extend between four and twelve days. Once the symptoms become present and the rash develops, the individual can spread measles up to about five days later.
To diagnose measles, doctors usually take into account the appearance of these symptom together with the persistence of fever for three or more days. If the person presents the so-called Koplik spots On the other hand, the disease can also be diagnosed. Another option is to appeal to a Laboratory analysis .
The appearance of the eruption On the skin, the most visible sign of measles, occurs approximately between the third and fifth day after the first symptoms, and the spots may last up to a week. Although this is not always the case, it is normal for the rash to begin in the head and then move down the entire body. In some people it appears as a discoloration in flat areas (called macules ), while in others, the spots are found in small red bumps (the papules ).
He pruritus It is another of the typical symptoms of this disease, as well as photophobia (abnormal sensitivity to light), pain in the muscles, rhinorrhea (excessive emission of fluid through the nostrils, in general because of an increase in the mucus secretion) and sore throat. In short, it is a disorder of low severity but that causes great discomfort, especially if it appears during hot weather, as rest becomes more difficult.
Measles can be transmitted via direct contact or through the drops of fluids that the patient spreads when he speaks, sneezes or coughs. Although the disease can be prevented with a vaccine , there is no concrete treatment for the disorder once it develops.
It is important to highlight the effectiveness of the measles vaccine, and what it is the most effective method to prevent its appearance ; in fact, not receiving it puts the person in a risk Very tall to get it. On the other hand, it is also effective to consume immunoglobulin within a period not exceeding six days after being exposed to the virus to reduce the risk of infection, or so that its effect is not so severe.
Measles usually does not cause major complications for Health and usually heals with rest. Certain products, such as paracetamol, and practices such as vaporizations also help, all with the simple objective of making symptoms more tolerable. In some cases, especially in adults, it can be complicated by the development of encephalitis or of pneumonia .
In the presence of the aforementioned symptoms, it is recommended to visit the doctor to know exactly how to proceed, especially if the patients are children, since they may require a vitamin A booster very urgently. Between the tests and the most common tests to evaluate a possible case of measles are viral culture and serology (a blood sample is studied to detect the presence of antibodies in the body).