The term theology It has its origin in Latin theologia. This word, in turn, comes from the Greek concept formed by theos ("God" ) and logos ("study" ). Theology is, in this way, the science who takes care of study of the characteristics and properties of divinity . It is a group of techniques own philosophy that seek to generate knowledge about God and the rest of the entities classified as divine. Ernest F. Kevan defines it as the science of God that has been revealed through his word.
For example: "This writer is an expert in theology", "If you want to enroll in this school, you must study a lot of theology", "I am a believer, but I don't care about theology".
The term was coined by Plato in his work "The Republic" . The Greek philosopher used it to name the understanding of the divine from the use of reasoning.
Later Aristotle He adopted the concept with two meanings: theology as the central division of the philosophy and theology as the name of the mythology's own thought that preceded philosophy.
For the theology proper to Catholicism, the object of direct study is God . The reason of the human being and the revelations made by the divinity are the criteria that allow this theology to reach the truth. Since the Church is its main community, Catholicism delegates to it the power to set the criteria linked to the reflection of theology.
Catholic theology, on the other hand, is founded on two mysteries: the Christological Mystery (the life of Jesus Christ, who is born, dies and rises) and the Trinitarian Mystery (the recognition of a single God in 3 different people that can be differentiated: the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit).
Some classifications can be established within this term, such as: biblical and systematic theology .
Biblical theology receives this name because it is based on the study of doctrinal content What’s in the Bible. Investigate those events narrated in the books that are part of this library on which the religious base their beliefs, and establish an interpretation for each of them. The textual criticism It is part of biblical theology and its fundamental objective is to relate current events with those narrated in the Bible in order to obtain clarity about their interpretation. For its part, the high criticism is responsible for understanding the literary paternity of each of the books that make up the Bible, its dates and authors.
Systematic theology consists of the most structured part of theology, which is based on a method for its realization. Try to find a logical clarity about the facts to understand the data revealed in the scriptures. In this classification enter the historical theology or dogmatic (the one that studies the doctrines, placing them in the trajectory of history covering from the apostolic period to the present and the consequences that certain facts have had on the life of the Church. It studies symbols, creeds and other doctrines) and the apologetics or ethics (Theology in action is what unifies the doctrine in everyday life. Study the role of the pastor in the life of the community).
It is important to mention that the study of all the concepts related to theology has as its main objective to help to understand better the pastoral task, it is a theory which only makes sense (according to religious criteria) if it is properly put into practice. In addition the knowledge of theology is based on the a priori deductive method (biblical theology) and the inductive method afterwards (systematic theology.)
Returning to what Kevan says about this science we can say that he defines the branches of theology in the following way: the biblical one is the one that contributes construction materials , the historical Lima and the systematic is responsible for lift the building . Finally, practical theology is what determines how to live Inside that building
The theological systems
According to beliefs, the ideological inclination and other aspects of the theology approach there are several theological systems , in turn each one is divided into sub-systems, however we will name only the three great systems, these are:
*The Catholic-Roman Theology : It is governed by the understanding of the Alexandrian canon of the biblical books. It clings to the truths allegedly revealed but that have not been written but transmitted orally that are shared in a traditional way through the Church. The Church is the focus that illuminates the Bible and not vice versa.
*The Subjective Theology : a liberal approach to theology, theological liberalism is the main representative of that theology. For her, God's authority is not manifested through the Church, but through the faculties of the human soul, such as reason, feelings and conscience .
*The Neo-orthodox theology : It is even more liberal than theological liberalism. It is a tributary of existentialist philosophy and focuses theology not only from man but from the sovereignty of God and to get to understand the desires and essence of that supreme being is based on the tools offered by the existentialist theory .
*The Evangelical Theology : It comes from the great Reformation of the 16th century whose objective was to return to its origins. It proclaims the importance of respecting the sovereign authority of God that is cited in the books of the Hebrew-Christian tradition. He proposes to hear the voice of God through the Spirit through the word revealed in that tradition.