Theocracy it is a concept derived from a Greek compound word that can be translated as "Dominion of God" . The notion refers to government that exerts a divinity directly or through some kind of representative.
In theocracy, therefore, the authorities rule in the name of God . Thus, the religious leader is also the political leader. These systems do not contemplate a separation between the State and the religious institution .
A example of theocracy is the Ancient Egypt . The pharaohs Not only were they the most important political leaders, but they were also considered as representatives of the divinities and were even priests.
He Tibet it was another example of theocracy until 2011 . The leader of this region in exile he receives the title of Dalai Lama : it is the highest religious reference and, even 2011 , of the main political authority. In that year, Tenzin Gyatso (he 14th Dalái Lama ) made the decision to decline all political charges.
He Vatican , for its part, is a theocracy that is still fully operational. He Pope (currently Francisco ) is the head of State and, in addition, the maximum authority at religious level.
It is important to keep in mind that theocracies are not democratic: the village He does not choose his representatives. People, on the other hand, cannot run to represent their compatriots, since the main characteristic of theocracy is that the leaders are nothing more than emanations of God, or their representatives on Earth. This particularity, in turn, cancels the possibility of exercising the opposition because, if the leader is God or your representative, nobody can replace it.
In the western governments of today, although there are many peculiarities and contradictions, it is not common for the State to impose the practice of a religion: the rulers must guarantee their citizens the fulfillment of their rights and offer them a constant development of the country, independently his beliefs .
Regarding the origin of the system Theocratic, it is necessary to go back to the oldest tribal societies, in which very often there was a shaman who fulfilled both the role of chief of the tribe and spiritual leader, or possessed a power superior to that of the chief. Later, in the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible, which are attributed to Moses) there is talk of a system of similar characteristics.
The theocracy presented in the Pentateuch describes a priestly caste , that is, a community, in this case a tribe, that is strictly dedicated to spiritual practice and service of religion; The kings of Israel, on the other hand, are a later institution.
With the emergence of the State in the oldest civilizations began to appreciate this particular duality of religious and political powers , many times united, but over time clearly delimited by means of laws and buildings (temples and palaces are a clear example of the attempt to "contain" each power in a different environment). In Ancient Greece, there was no well-defined clergy or dogma, which is why charges politicians also included religious functions.
In the Islamic Empire, until in 1924 it was abolished the ottoman caliphate , the figure of caliph he exercised maximum government and, at the same time, represented the hierarchy highest in Islam (he was the "prince of believers"); In any case, it is clear that the entire people did not recognize it, but the group of Muslims called Sunni , the largest in its community worldwide and characterized by its devotion to the facts and sayings attributed to the Prophet Muhammad.