Militia It is a term with multiple meanings, although all related. It can be used to name the preparation of a war and at act of disciplining soldiers for her.
The concept, which comes from Latin militia, allows reference to the service and profession military Yet the war troop . One of the most frequent uses of the notion is linked to the union and organization of citizens for self-defense and the development of paramilitary activities .
In this sense, the militia is a guerrilla or a irregular army , whose members (the militiamen ) they usually join voluntarily and receive no pay or benefit other than to defend a cause.
In addition to all of the above it is important that we keep in mind that there are various types of militias. Specifically, among the most significant are the following:
• National Militia. Under this denomination the whole set of military bodies that were created in Spain in the 19th century is framed. Those were characterized by being formed by civilians who had in common the objective of defending what the existing constitution system was. It should also be stressed that it was known by the name of urban militia.
• Auxiliary Militia. Much further back in time you have to go back to understand that one. And it was during the Roman Empire when the same one that was identified was created because it aimed to help the Romans in certain causes when they were in danger. Precisely during that time there was also what was called tumultuarial militia, which was the army that served as a reserve.
Broadly speaking these are some of the most important types of militia, but throughout history there have been and there are many. Thus, for example, in Spain we must mention the Confederal Militia, also called popular, which fought during the Civil War of the twentieth century. Members of trade unions and civilian volunteers were those who were most part of the one that openly declared itself in favor of the Republic.
The National Guard in the United States, the Black Shirts in Italy or the Volkssturm have been other militias that have been created throughout history.
The usual thing is that the State do not endorse the formation of militias, since they act outside the framework of the law and they can commit abuses. The state institution that must fulfill the functions of the militia is the army.
In some regions, however, militias are frequent due to the lack of state power and their inaction. Some militias have several decades of existence, have professionalized and have large armaments.
There are militias that justify their actions in response to state or army behavior. Before a coup , when the military take power and set aside the Constitution , many citizens may decide to organize and train militias to combat illegality.
Militias, on the other hand, can also arise in support of the army in the face of a foreign attack. In this case, they act as a complementary force in an extraordinary circumstance.