It is called hemolysis to the process that is generated when Red blood cells he disintegrate and the hemoglobin they contained is released in the blood plasma . The term can also be accentuated in the first I (hemolysis ).
To understand what hemolysis is, therefore, it is important to define other concepts before. First of all you have to know that Red blood cells , also called red blood cells or erythrocytes , are blood cells . Among its components is the hemoglobin , a protein that is responsible for carrying oxygen from the organs of the respiratory system to the various tissues of the body.
Red blood cells have no nucleus or organelles: that is why, as they wear out, they are not in a position to repair themselves. At some point, the red blood cells are destroyed and their hemoglobin is released in the plasma, which is the liquid part of the blood. This process of destruction of the erythrocyte and subsequent release of its hemoglobin in the bloodstream is called hemolysis.
It is important to mention that not all red blood cells are destroyed by releasing hemoglobin. Those who cross the process they usually do it in the spleen, in the bone marrow or in the liver, about 120 days after its appearance.
There are various causes of pathological type that can accelerate or increase hemolysis. These include mechanical injuries, enzymatic or osmotic disorders, infections such as malaria, congenital alterations that affect erythrocytes (in the context of an infection or an abnormal state of hemoglobin), a union antigen-antibody (as a result of a hemolytic disease in a newborn baby or a blood transfusion) and various diseases .
On the other hand, in the context of a blood test, the handling of the samples can cause hemolysis if certain conditions exist, such as the following:
* suck the sample too fast;
* use containers, syringes and needles that are wet;
* do not empty the syringe properly;
* use an incorrect proportion of anticoagulant (a substance used to inhibit or interfere with blood clotting).
To the above list we can add the cases of snake bites, rattlesnakes and spiders. It is important to note that the most severe episodes of hemolysis occur in people who have a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and are exposed to substances, drugs or situations that potentiate the destruction of erythrocytes. Usually, these phenomena last a short time and recovery begins almost immediately, since the organism does not stop producing red blood cells; however, sometimes a case of renal failure or even death can occur, if the event is extremely servero.
Hemolysis causes interference with several measurements , such as LDH (lactate dehydrogenase, a catalyst enzyme present in various tissues of our body), potassium, GOT (glutamic oxalacetic transaminase or aspartate aminotransferase, an enzyme present in various tissues, mainly in the liver, muscles and in the heart), GPT (alanine aminotransferase or pyruvic glutamic transaminase, an enzyme found especially in the liver), creatinine, bilirubins and acid phosphatase (an enzyme belonging to the esterase group responsible for eliminating phosphate groups of certain substrates), among others .
One of the situations that can trigger an episode of hemolysis is drowning in Water sweet: when the person can no longer hold their breath, the water found in the pulmonary alveoli reaches the bloodstream and then the red blood cell disintegration takes place.
The hemolytic anemia and the hemolytic uremic syndrome They are two of the conditions that affect hemolysis and cause various disorders in the Health of the person.