From Latin alteratio, disturbance is the alter action . East verb indicates a change in the form of something, a disturbance, a disorder or anger. For example: "We cannot live in a state of permanent alteration", "Throat problems can lead to voice disturbance", "The alteration of ecosystems due to polluting emissions is one of the most serious problems today".
The alteration, therefore, can be a shock or a state generated by the go to or other passion: “I know that, when I tell him what happened, I will have to endure his alteration”, “Calm down and put aside the alteration, which is an easy problem to solve”, "His screams reflected the alteration of his mood".
A rampage , a tumult or a altercation They can also receive the name of alteration: "The police dispersed the alteration with tear gas", “A judge ordered the organizers of the march to be arrested for considering that they were driving a public order disturbance”, "A hard lack of Italian was the starting point of a widespread alteration that included insults and blows of all kinds".
It is common for the alteration to be associated with stress and at nervousness . When a person It is altered, has excessive reactions and is not at peace with itself, but feels annoying and annoying.
In the music , the alteration is a sign which is used for Modify he sound of a note. These signs, like the flat (which lowers the sound a halftone) or the sustained (raise the sound a semitone), change the intonation or height of natural sounds.
Known changes with the name of alterations or chromosomal aberrations they can affect the number of the chromosomes or their structure. On the other hand, there are sudden and independent alterations of the environment that are called mutations and that can be transmitted from generation to generation.
Within the numerical alterations there are the following two types:
* euploidies: the alteration occurs in a complete envelope of chromosomes, which is called haploid set. The organisms euploides are those that have multiples of the haploid set and these can be diploid (if your number of chromosomes is equal to two) or polypoid (if they have more than two chromosomes, although it can also be specified if it is a triploid, a tetraploid, a pentaploid, etc);
* aneuploidies: when the alteration affects one or very few pairs of chromosomes, organisms are called aneuploid if they have enough or lack chromosomes. Within the aneuploidy alterations, the so-called nulisomies they are especially scarce, since they are usually lethal in normal diploid organisms. The monosomies they can also cause death, although in humans it can unleash the syndrome of Turner if it affects the X chromosome.
In many cases, chromosomes break spontaneously, or induced by mutagenic agents. Although there are mechanisms to repair them, which manage to gather the fragmented parts, they sometimes fail and cause chromosomal mutations of a structural type. Among these alterations it is possible to distinguish duplications, the deletions, the translocations and the investments.
It is known by the name of mutation to the mechanism by which new variants appear in the genes because of random errors that occur in the hereditary material, and change in allelic form. A mutation can take place in both germ cells (precursors and gametes; this type of alteration is the only one that can be transmitted by inheritance) and in somatic cells (in this case, despite not transcending the generation in which it is given, it may be related to disorders of cancer size).