The psychiatry is the science which is dedicated to study and treatment of mental illnesses . Its objective is to prevent, diagnose, treat and rehabilitate disorders of the mind.
Just in the XIX century mental disorders began to be treated scientifically as diseases . Until then, people suffering from mental illnesses were locked in nursing homes and received different treatments with the intention of restoring their reason.
Thanks to literature and cinema, many of the atrocities to which people suffered from disorders Mental decades and centuries ago, they questioned the supposed benefits of treatments. On the other hand, it is worrisome to think that many of today's psychiatric patients are victims of ill-treatment, and that so many people roam the streets of cities talking alone, without receiving assistance of any kind from the authorities or, something perhaps sadder, of the other beings of his kind, who look the other way.
The German Emil Kraepelin (1856 -1926 ) is usually mentioned as the father of psychiatry and responsible for including this science within the scope of medicine . Based on their contributions, psychiatry began to consider both psychological and social factors as well as biological issues in the treatment of patients.
Psychiatric treatments, therefore, can be divided into two main types: biological , which may include the supply of medicines and the application of electroshock to act in the biochemistry of brain , and the psychotherapeutic , which appeal to the techniques of the psychology .
Psychiatry has several subspecialties, such as psychopathology (who studies the processes which can lead to mental insanity), the psychopharmacology (dedicated to the analysis of the effects of drugs on behavioral, emotional or cognitive treatments) and the sexology (the schematic study of human sexuality).
It is known as antipsychiatry to the set of theories and postures that consider that traditional psychiatry is not beneficial since it uses inappropriate medical concepts, is linked to the economic interests of pharmaceutical companies, stigmatizes their patients and even treats people against their own Will.
Comparison with psychology
The commonality of people tends to believe that the difference between psychology and psychiatry is simply that the former does not include the supply of medications to patients; However, we will see below that the relationship between the two is much more complex.
In principle, it is necessary to list their similarities:
* both are sciences that are dedicated to the care of Health mental of human beings;
* both offer the possibility of treating patients through therapy;
* they allow interaction with other science when this may be beneficial for a patient;
* both present specialties for children, adolescents and adults.
Next, we will study some of its main differences, both in terms of application and in formal and academic matters:
* while to receive the psychologist degree it is necessary to study the degree in Psychology, to become a psychiatrist you must study Medicine and then specialize in this science;
* As mentioned earlier, only psychiatrists have the power to prescribe medications;
* psychology focuses on the plane emotional, and psychiatry focuses its study on neurology;
* regarding its classification, psychology is a social science, while psychiatry is a natural science;
* Within psychology it is possible to find various branches, such as the clinic. Psychiatry, on the other hand, is itself a branch (of medicine);
* The time needed to complete both races is different. After completing the medical degree, which is a year longer than that of psychology, specialization in psychiatry and then the corresponding residences must be completed.