Mitosis , which derives from a Greek term that means "to knit" , is the segmentation of a cell which takes place after the genetic material has been duplicated, which allows each of the generated cells to have all the chromosomes available.
It is, therefore, the action that distributes the hereditary information found in the DNA in an equitable way. The mitosis process generates cells that are identical from the genetic point of view. The meiosis (Another process of cell division), on the other hand, produces cells that are genetically distinct.
Mitosis is, in short, a procedure in which cells are multiply and that has a great impact on the growth, development and regeneration capacity of the organism. The conformation of two new cores it is known as karyokinesis , while the cytoplasm division is called cytokinesis .
When talking about mitosis, it is important, in addition to everything underlined, that we know that this process is divided into four clearly differentiated stages or phases, the first of which is the one that is called a prophase. In this, the chromosomes can already be observed in the microscope and stand out because they are formed by bars, called chromatids, that are held together.
The second stage is the so-called metaphase and in it what is produced is that the said pairs of chromatids are moving towards what is the center of the cell itself. Then, the third step that receives the name of anaphase takes place that we can determine is the most important stage of mitosis because it is carried out thanks to it what is the division and subsequent transport and distribution of the two copies of what the original genetic information was.
Finally, the fourth and final phase is the so-called telophase. In this case we can establish that it is the moment at which the processes of previous stages are reversed, resulting in the obtaining of two daughter cells that are characterized by having the same endowment of cytoplasm and also of chromosomes.
It is also important to underline that when mitosis occurs in organisms that are multicellular, this not only gives rise to new individuals but also to the restitution of dead cells, to the regeneration of what were damaged tissues and to the healing of wounds.
Mitosis can also occur in a different way, not including cell division. The process, which is called endomitosis or endoreduplication , produces cells with copies of the chromosome in question in the same nucleus. The cells generated by endomitosis are called endoploid .
It should be noted that they can occur mistakes in mitosis, although they are unusual. They usually take place in the first cellular segmentations in the zygote and affect the descendants of the stem cell that has the defects.
A chromosome that does not separate at the stage known as anaphase and the damage of the chromosome that is produced by the changes in the structure of the cell that generates the process are other problems that can arise during mitosis. There are times when the error can be detected and corrected in time.