The ecology It is the scientific specialty focused on the study and analysis of the link that arises between living beings and the surrounding environment, understood as the combination of abiotic factors (among which we can mention the climate and geology) and biotic factors (organisms that share the habitat). Ecology also analyzes the distribution and amount of living organisms as a result of the aforementioned relationship.
Notably Ökologie It is a concept that dates from the late 1860s and was coined by the biologist and philosopher of German origin Ernst Haeckel . This word is composed of two Greek words: oikos (what does it mean "home" , "home" or "home" ) and logos (term that, translated into Spanish, is understood as "study" ). Therefore, ecology is precisely defined as “The study of homes” .
Although the origin of the term is doubtful, the investigator is recognized Haeckel as one of its creators, who when beginning to develop his experiments, Haeckel, who defined it as that branch of science that revolves around the interaction of every living being with the surrounding surface. However, over time it extended the concept to cover the analysis of the properties of the medium , including the displacement of matter and energy and its evolution due to the presence of biological sets.
At present and for several years, ecology is closely related to a heterogeneous movement politician and Social , which tries to act in defense of the environment. Ecologists make different social complaints, propose the need for legal reforms and promote social awareness to achieve their main objective, which is the conservation of human health without damaging or altering the balance of natural ecosystems.
Therefore, the environmental cause (also known as green movement or environmentalist ) focuses on three major issues of universal scope: the preservation and regeneration of natural resources; the protection of wildlife and the reduction of the level of pollution generated by mankind.
A fundamental element of ecology is the homeostasis which consists in that all the species that live in a balanced natural environment tend to self-regulate and remain more or less constant in number of inhabitants, in this way the environment ensures an equitable distribution of resources and there is never a lack of them. In an environment that has been modified by the hand of man, homeostasis is more difficult to find, and for this reason the natural imbalances .
Currently, ecology is considered to be a branch of biological Sciences , and is responsible for studying the interactions between living organisms and the natural environment in which they live. It is a multidisciplinary science that, in order to develop itself, needs other sciences to understand the entire study of the environment. Among these other sciences are the climatology, biology, ethics and chemical engineering .
All the biotic processes they are characterized by energy transfer so they can be studied by the physical and included within its natural laws; Chemistry is concerned with the metabolic and physiological processes of the subsystems because they depend on chemical reactions. The biome structure is studied by the geology Because it is intimately related to the geological structure of the dream and living beings when interacting with the environment can modify their geology. Talking about calculations, statistics and projections To draw conclusions from specific and numerical information, the ones in charge of studying them are the mathematics . To carry out the study of every aspect of life in an ecosystem, ecology it uses the other sciences , for this reason it is said that it is multidisciplinary .
To study ecosystems, ecology establishes different levels of organization, which are: be (everything that exists, alive or inert), individual (any living being whatever its species), species (group of individuals who share genome, with phenotypic characteristics), population (individuals of a species that share habitat), community (set of populations that share habitat), ecosystem (combination and interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in nature), biome (vegetable communities that share a geographical area) and biosphere (set of ecosystems that are part of the planet. It is an ecological unit that refers to the entire inhabited part of the planet).
Scientists who research and elaborate theories about ecology are called ecologists . There are two branches of ecology that are the autoecology (individual species and their multiple relationships with the environment) and the synecology (communities and their relations with the environment). In turn, according to what the ecologists investigate collaborate with a certain type of ecology, such as:
The behavioral ecology It is the one that is in charge of studying the techniques of food collection, adaptations to predation or natural disasters and reproduction relations.
The population ecology It is in charge of studying the processes that have to do with homeostasis, the distribution and abundance of populations, both animal and vegetable. Fluctuations in the number of individuals of each species, predator-prey relationships and population genetics.
The community ecology It is responsible for studying the functioning and ways of organizing a community, formed by interacting populations. These ecologists investigate the ranges of the species, the reasons that make some more numerous than others and the factors that affect the stability of the community.
The paleoecology For its part, it is an important area that studies fossil organisms. From the study of the species of the past you can understand the techniques of collection, reproduction and others that current organisms possess.