To be able to know in depth the term that now concerns us, it is necessary, first, to discover the etymological origin of the two words that shape it:
-Projection derived from Latin, from "proctio". This word, which can be translated as “action and effect of throwing something forward”, is composed of the prefix “pro-” (forward); the verb "iacere" (throw) and the suffix "-ción", which is the one used to indicate "action and effect".
-Ortogonal, meanwhile, emanates from the Greek. Specifically, it is the result of the sum of three elements of this language: “orthos” (straight), “gonos” (angle) and the suffix “-al”, which is used to indicate a relationship of belonging. Hence it can be translated as "which is at right angles."
Projection is the result of to project , a verb that refers to guiding something forward, planning or making an object visible on the figure of another. Orthogonal , for its part, is what is found at an angle of ninety degrees.
A orthogonal projection , therefore, is one that is created from plotting of all projecting lines perpendicular to a certain plane . In this way, there is a link between the points of what is projected with the projected points.
What makes orthogonal projection possible is the drawing of the same object, which is in space, in different planes. In this way, the result is the possibility of having two or more different points of view of the object in question.
Orthogonal projection is a widely used tool in the field of technical drawing to achieve the graphic representation of an object. There are three large projection planes: profile, vertical and horizontal. The intersection of these planes occurs at angles of ninety degrees (that is, right angles ), forming various quadrants. All objects, therefore, can be projected into these quadrants.
It is important to know that it is related to the term main views. And these are the orthogonal projections that are carried out of an object on what are six planes that are presented as a cube. Specifically, the main views of a thing are the elevation, the plan and the profile.
Keep in mind that if orthogonal projections are of great value, it is, among other things, because they allow you to discover, in each of the views that are carried out, some properties or characteristics of the object that cannot be perceived in another . Thus, for example, in one you can know the width and length and in another, for example, what is the depth.
Orthogonal projections are indispensable in the industry , because you need to know all the perspectives of an object before starting its manufacture. These projections emerged in the century XVIII and were driven by Gaspard Monge .